Friday, May 22, 2020
The young members of the society, specifically the children and the adolescents, are believed to be the future of a nation. Indeed, their ability to function individually and as a part of the community will largely determine the status of the society. This principle has invisibly become the basis of the current policies and government actions that promote optimal health and well being of the young. In Australia, where currently live the healthiest generation of children in the history, authorities, including individuals and organizations from both public and private sectors, continue to search for and formulate the most efficient policies and services that can further improve the indices mental health as mental illness has become one of the leading causes of non-fatal burden of disease and injury affecting good health (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), 2006, p. 97). Despite such efforts, national, state and local leaders of change as well as the health care profes sions, especially those engaged in primary care must know that every policy and action such as the National Mental Health Strategy and the Fourth National Mental Health Plan will be deemed useless unless they think about and act on broader, often nonbiomedical, determinants of population health while also attending to needs of patients for individual care .We will write a custom essay sample on Issues in Rural Adolescent Mental Health in Australia or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page
Sunday, May 10, 2020
The Undisputed Truth About Essay Writing Topics for University Students That the Experts Dont Want You to Know
The Undisputed Truth About Essay Writing Topics for University Students That the Experts Don't Want You to Know Bear in mind you may make funny argumentative essays if you do a few things. If you're searching for some topic ideas, however, then take a look at the subsequent list and maybe one or more will fit your fancy! Actually, make it a point to do a little bit of background reading on the subject. Ask any immediate questions that you could have and Google the rest. One of several advantages of public schooling is it is a distinctly distinct setting from house in which studying topics in your home helps make it hard to stay disciplined on occasion. The problem may have scientific relevance, or it may be technically sound or could possibly be related to certain social aspects of normal life. The key thing is to understand at which area or field you're good at. If you've written on a single topic for even a month, it's likely that you are likely beginning to settle on th is issue, do it for at least 2 months and that's all your brain will think about. The top rated argumentative essay ideas are broken up into various categories. The outline should clearly depict a variety of topics and subtopics through using headings and subheadings. Curriculum proposal topics is a means to try. It's important to select debatable argumentative essay topics since you need opposing points that you could counter to your own points. The ways students ought to be taught about their well-being. At various classes, they learn how to perform great articles. With proper main topics, they can reach good results. Some students and counselors squawked, but I feel the word-count ceiling is a great thing. The Ideal Approach to Essay Writing Topics for University Students Writing a proposal essay isn't exactly among the toughest things you will ever get to do, and it is for precisely the same reason that you must look at learning not just how to write one, but also ho w to be sure that the one that you decide to write about is among the best that you could possibly get to supply your tutors. Brainstorming about what to write for your college essay may be daunting but it's an important procedure. The thesis will provide you with a guideline on the best way to go about with writing the essay. Writing a thesis is really quite simple if you abide by a fundamental formula. In all honesty, paying someone to compose your essay isn't ideal. So with no more ado, here's what you need to understand about writing on any topic that comes your way. Make certain that the sentences make sense and there aren't any typos, and meaningless sentences. Argumentative writings is a particular kind of a paper. 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Students start to acquire more assignments and not as much time to study and complete them. A descriptive essay is an essay that's bound to offer some form of detailed info on a specific subject. The main reason why a lot of students opt to tackle descriptive essay topics is because they are simple to take care of. Argumentative essay topics are so important since they are debatableand it's essential to at all times be critically considering the world around us. The very best argumentative essay topics are the simplest ones. The success of your essay is in the suitable selection of the topic. Knowing the Essay Topics The major focus of the way to compose a research essay is essentially the issue to be researched upon. Many students come online to discover persuasive essay topics for higher english simply to pick precise topics and begin writing about them. Take into consideration your essay for a conversation or debate. Finding the Best Essay Writing Topics for University Students A different way to help get a clearer idea about the college essay is read about other college essay that was done by other people. To compose a strong argumentative essay, students should start by familiarizing themselves with a number of the common, and frequently conflicting, positions on the research topic so they can write an educated paper. Many students think a thesis is merely a group of ideas strung together with a couple crucial words. Every student who would like to perform a great academic paper can use ment ioned subjects and example argumentative essay to do an exemplary work. Introducing Essay Writing Topics for University Students Make sure you're picking a genuine essay writing service instead of just some bogus content mill. It's possible for you to check and match until the rates and deliverables, then decide to employ the most appropriate company for expert customized university essay writing services. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(63) " is least at minimum AOA and is greatest at the maximum AOA i\." There are four forces that act on an aircraft in flight: lift, weight, thrust, and drag. AircraftÃ¢â¬â¢s motion in air is dependent on the relative magnitude and direction of these forces. Fig -1 below shows the direction of these forces. We will write a custom essay sample on Drag in aircrafts or any similar topic only for you Order Now Fig 1 (Benson, 2006) The weight of an airplane is always directed towards the center of the earth. The thrust is normally directed forward along the center-line of the aircraft. Lift and drag are aerodynamic forces on the airplane. Drag acts in a direction opposite to the motion of the aircraft and hence is sometimes referred to as the aerodynamic friction, while lift force acts perpendicular to the motion. An aircraft is in a state of equilibrium when the thrust and drag are equal and opposite. It will continue to move forward at the same uniform speed. If thrust or drag becomes greater than the opposite force, the aircraft loses its state of equilibrium. If thrust is greater than drag, the aircraft will accelerate. If drag is greater than thrust, the aircraft will lose speed and eventually descend. When lift and weight are equal and opposite, the airplane is in a state of equilibrium. If lift is greater than weight, the aircraft will climb. If weight is greater than lift, the airplane will descend. Drag is the aerodynamic force encountered as an airplane pushes through the air, which tends to slow the airplane down. Drag is generated by the contact of a solid body with a fluid, in this case due to the interaction between the plane body and air. Drag force, which is a mechanical force, is generated by every part of the airplane including the engines. It is a vector quantity i. e. has both magnitude and direction. Drag must be overcome by thrust in order to achieve forward motion. Drag is generated by nine conditions associated with the motion of air particles over the aircraft. Although prediction of drag and wind tunnel drag measurements of models yield good results, final drag evaluation must be obtained by flight tests. Sources of Drag in aircrafts Drag can be thought of as aerodynamic friction, and one of the sources of drag is the skin friction between the molecules of the air and the solid surface of the aircraft. Drag can also be thought of as aerodynamic resistance to the motion of the object through the fluid. This source of drag depends on the shape of the aircraft and is called form drag. As air flows around a body, the local velocity and pressure are changed. Since pressure is a measure of the momentum of the gas molecules and a change in momentum produces a force, a varying pressure distribution will produce a force on the body. This causes pressure drag. As an aircraft approaches the speed of sound, shock waves are generated along the surface. There is a drag penalty, known as wave drag that is associated with the formation of the shock waves. The magnitude of the wave drag depends on the Mach number of the flow. Ram drag is associated with slowing down the free stream air as air is brought inside the aircraft. Jet engines and cooling inlets on the aircraft are sources of ram drag. (Benson, 2006) There is an additional drag component caused by the generation of lift, known as induced drag, is the drag due to lift. It is also called Ã¢â¬Å"drag due to liftÃ¢â¬ because it only occurs on finite, lifting wings. This drag occurs because the flow near the wing tips is distorted span wise as a result of the pressure difference from the top to the bottom of the wing. Swirling vortices are formed at the wing tips, which produce a downwash of air behind the wing which is very strong near the wing tips and decreases toward the wing root. The local angle of attack of the wing is increased by the induced flow of the down wash, giving this, downstream-facing, component to the aerodynamic force acting over the entire wing. Types of Drag in aircrafts There are several types of drag: form, pressure, skin friction, parasite, induced, wave and ram. However, form, pressure, skin friction, wave and ram drags are collectively known as parasite drag. Hence, there are only two types of drag: parasite and induced Parasite drag Ã¢â¬â Profile or parasite drag is caused by the airplane pushing the air out of the way as it moves forward. The parasite drag of a typical airplane consists primarily of the skin friction, roughness, and pressure drag of the major components. Some additional parasite drag is also due to things like fuselage upsweep, control surface gaps, base areas, and other extraneous items. The basic parasite drag area for airfoil and body shapes can be computed from the following expression: f = k cf Swet, where the skin friction coefficient, cf , which is based on the exposed wetted area includes the effects of roughness, and the form factor, k, accounts for the effects of both super-velocities and pressure drag. Swet is the total wetted area of the body or surface. Computation of the overall parasite drag requires that we compute the drag area of each of the major components (fuselage, wing, nacelles and pylons, and tail surfaces) and then evaluate the additional parasite drag components described above. Hence it is written as: CDp = S ki cfi Sweti / Sref + CDupsweep + CDgap+ CDnac_base + CDmisc, where the first term includes skin friction, and pressure drag at zero lift of the major components. cfi is the average skin friction coefficient for a rough plate with transition at flight Reynolds number. Equivalent roughness is determined from flight test data. (http://adg. stanford. edu/aa241/drag/parasitedrag. html) Induced drag Ã¢â¬â Induced drag is the part of the force produced by the wing that is parallel to the relative wind, i. e. the lift. As it is a consequence of the vortices it is sometimes called vortex drag. Induced drag is least at minimum AOA and is greatest at the maximum AOA i. You read "Drag in aircrafts" in category "Papers" e. angle of attack. Induced drag = (k ? CL? / A) ? Q ? S where A is the wing aspect ratio. (Preston, R) The magnitude of induced drag depends on the amount of lift being generated by the wing and on the wing geometry Long, thin (chord wise) wings have low induced drag; short wings with a large chord have high induced drag. An airplane must fight its way through both kinds of drag in order to maintain steady flight. . Total drag is a sum of Parasite and Induced drag. Total Drag = Parasite drag + Induced drag However, the total drag of an aircraft is not simply the sum of the drag of its components. When the components are combined into a complete aircraft, one component can affect the air flowing around and over the airplane, and hence, the drag of one component can affect the drag associated with another component. These effects are called interference effects, and the change in the sum of the component drags is called interference drag. Thus, (Drag)1+2 = (Drag)1 + (Drag)2 + (Drag)interference (Johnston, D) Generally, interference drag will add to the component drags but in a few cases, for example, adding tip tanks to a wing, total drag will be less than the sum of the two component drags because of the reduction of induced drag. Total drag and its variation with altitude The equation for total drag is: D = CD x S x ? rV2 (Preston, R) where, CD is the coefficient of drag. It must be subdivided into two parts, the Cdi (Coefficient of induced drag) and CDp (Coefficient of parasite drag. ). Therefore it can be written as: D = (Cdi + Cdp) x S x ? rV2 (Preston, R) The airplaneÃ¢â¬â¢s total drag determines the amount of thrust required at a given airspeed. Thrust must equal drag in steady flight. Lift and drag vary directly with the density of the air. As air density increases, lift and drag increase and as air density decreases, lift and drag decrease. Thus, both lift and drag will decrease at higher altitudes. Fig 1 shows the total drag curve which represents drag against velocity of the object. The fuel-flow versus velocity graph for an air graph is derived from this graph, and generally looks as shown in Fig 2 Fig Ã¢â¬â 1 (Preston, R) Fig Ã¢â¬â 2 (Preston, R) From the above drag it is seen that the total drag is minimum at a certain velocity. This occurs when the parasitic drag is equal to the induced drag. Below this speed induced drag dominates, and above this speed parasite drag dominates. Design engineers are interested in minimizing the total drag. Unfortunately many factors may conflict. For example, longer wing span reduces induced drag, but the larger frontal area usually means a higher coefficient of parasite drag. Conversely, a high wing loading (i. e. a small wing) with a small aspect ratio produces the lowest possible parasite drag but unfortunately is the produces for a lot of induced drag. In recent time it is seen that jet airliners have longer wings, to reduce induced drag, and then fly at higher altitudes to reduce the parasite drag. This causes no improvement in aerodynamic efficiency, but the higher altitudes do result in more efficient engine operation. (Preston, R) Angle of Attack (AOA), is the angle between the wing and the relative wind. Everything else being costant, an increase in AOA results in an increase in lift. This increase continues until the stall AOA is reached then the trend reverses itself and an increase in AOA results in decreased lift. The pilot uses the elevators to change the angle of attack until the wings produce the lift necessary for the desired maneuver. Besides AOA other factors also contribute to the production of lift, like relative wind velocity and air density i. e. temperature and altitude. Changing the size or shape of the wing (lowering the flaps) will also change the production of lift. Airspeed is absolutely necessary to produce lift. If there is no airflow past the wing, no air can be diverted downward. At low airspeed, the wing must fly at a high AOA to divert enough air downward to produce adequate lift. As airspeed increases, the wing can fly at lower AOAs to produce the needed lift. This is why airplanes flying relatively slow must be nose high (like an airliner just before landing or just as it takes off) but at high airspeeds fly with the fuselage fairly level. The key is that the wings donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to divert fast moving air down nearly as much as they do to slow moving air. Air density also contributes to the wingÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to produce lift. This is manifested primarily in an increase in altitude, which decreases air density. As the density decreases, the wing must push a greater volume of air downward by flying faster or push it down harder by increasing the angle of attack. This is why aircraft that fly very high must either go very fast e. g. Mach 3, or must have a very large wing for its weight. This is why the large passenger airplanes cruise at higher altitude to reduce drag, and hence save on the furl costs. (Ã¢â¬Å"Aircraft for AmateursÃ¢â¬ , 1999) Small sized aircrafts have lower than normal Reynolds number. The drag coefficient attributable to skin friction is hence higher for the small aircraft. For this reason, the maximum lift-drag ratios characteristic of business jet aircraft tend to be lower than those of the large transports. Hence, the smaller flights can fly at relatively lower altitudes. References Books John A. Roberson Clayton T. Crowe, 1997, Engineering fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. , John Weily Sons Inc. , ISBN 0-471-14735-4. Clement Klienstreuer, 1997, Engineering Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-49670-5 Websites Ã¢â¬Å"Aircraft for AmateursÃ¢â¬ , 11th Jan. 1999 http://www. fas. org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/intro. htm Benson, T. , Ã¢â¬Å"The BeginnerÃ¢â¬â¢s guide to AeronauticsÃ¢â¬ . , 14th March 2006 http://www. grc. nasa. gov/WWW/K-12/////airplane/ Johnston, D. , Ã¢â¬Å"DragÃ¢â¬ , http://www. centennialofflight. gov/essay/Theories_of_Flight/drag/TH4. htm Ã¢â¬Å"Parasitic DragÃ¢â¬ , http://adg. stanford. edu/aa241/drag/parasitedrag. html Preston, R. , Ã¢â¬Å"Total DragÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Flight ControlsÃ¢â¬ , http://selair. selkirk. bc. ca/aerodynamics1/ How to cite Drag in aircrafts, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Judging the Veracity of CSA Memories 1. In October of 1996 a group of Psychologist at Stanford University began conducting a study funded by an award from the Institute on Women and Gender located also at Stanford University. This study centered on examining factors associated with therapist's judgements and treatment decisions regarding patients with memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and how these personal judgements affected treatment strategies. The researchers implemented a detailed questionnaire and surveyed five hundred four male and five hundred four female therapists and then compiled the results obtaining some very contradictory results when compared with previously held beliefs. The study identified three primary goals: to examine the relationship between characteristics of sexual abuse memories and the therapists' ability to judge the credibility of the allegations, to review the link between the therapists' determination of truthfulness of the sexual abuse memory and the treatment decisions made, and to examine the effect of the therapists' beliefs on clinical judgement and treatment decisions. The researchers noted that there is a growing body of empirical evidence that shows a large number of adults reporting sexual abuse also report forgetting some or all of their abuse. Problems have been feared though if a therapist does not believe their client and navigates a course of treatment that will not benefit the patient's actual needs. They also mention a growing fear among therapists of being accused in criminal court of planting false memories of CSA. The fourth goal of this study, not outlined by the researchers, was interpreted as finding and establishi ng a strong guideline to assist therapist when reviewing patients reporting memories of CSA or presenting symptoms relating to those memories. Judging the Veracity of CSA Memories 2. The research group implemented a detailed and original National Psychologist Survey that included a varying case vignette and a questionnaire. The case vignette consisted of two paragraphs with the first paragraph describing a 32-year-old male or female patient with seven psychological symptoms that have been associated with CSA including specific instances of acting out for men and women. The second paragraph then contained specific information of five different characteristics of abuse. These varied in a ratio to conceive 48 different vignettes and each participant was randomly given one of the 48 vignettes. Also included were four separate sections to the questionnaire, the Abuse Credibility Rating, Abuse-Focused Treatment Scale (AFTS), Prevalence of Sexual Abuse Scale (PSABS), and demographics. The research group utilized five focus groups and one panel of experts to develop the questionnaire and vignettes. The participants were 1008 randomly chosen members of the APA. Sixty eight percent of the participants responded with one percent refusing to participate. Five percent of the questionnaires had too much missing data to be useful. This created a pool of 64% of 984 usable questionnaires. The participants represented an ethnic breakdown that was consistent with the APA as a whole with the majority being doctoral level therapist. Twelve percent of the respondents reported a history of sexual abuse with two percent refusing to answer the question and three percent not being sure These efforts revealed some expected and some surprising results concerning how therapist interpret the type of recollection a patient presents. The article cited a study by Ofshe and Watters (1994) which stated that therapists rely on vague memories as evidence of sexual abuse. Whereas the results of this study showed therapists tend to Judging the Veracity of CSA Memories 3. hold vivid memories as proof of CSA. The study also showed therapists tend to disbelieve the truthfulness of previously forgotten memories as portraying actual events. However, there is a large volume of studies present, employing varying methodologies, which show a portion of CSA survivors experience periods of forgetting all or part of their ordeal such as those suffering from post traumatic stress disorder. Despite strong evidence proving a CSA survivor may well forget portions of their trauma, this study showed therapists tend to believe vivid and complete memories as opposed to vague, partial, or previously forgotten memories. Therapists also take into account the age of the patient at the time they experienced the abuse. They are prone to believe the patients who remember the abuse occurring after age 4. The therapists were not affected by the
Friday, March 20, 2020
Planning Introduction - What is Planning?Planning is one of the major functions of a manager and the future of the organization and the achievement of corporate goals may rely on the fact how well the planning process is carried out at each level of the organization.Planning is a logical process as it involves thinking and decision making and is a continuous and a dynamic process because changes in plans have to be made from time to time to take care of the changing environment. It concerns a series of action steps to achieve a specific goal. If you do it effectively, you can reduce much the necessary time and effort of achieving the goal. It is well known that for unstructured activities 80 percent of the effort, give less than 20 percent of the valuable outcome.Why do we need to plan?It is much easier to avoid wasting effort as some activities that you do without planning may end up as irrelevant to achieving our expected goals.Emmaus Bible College's Mission StatementAnd therefore redundant work may take place resulting in waste of time and resources. But with a plan it is possible to carry out the tasks in a most efficient and effective way possible.Planning is vital for meeting your needs during each action step with your time, money, or resources. The planning phase can be utilized to gather the resources that are need to fulfill a task. This helps the planner to get a clear idea about the expenditure of the task, the impact it has on the organization and the risks involved.Furthermore, a plan can be used as a tool which you can used in directing people to carry out their tasks and help supervisory personnel to identify the progress or where we are currently and also to...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
What to Do if You're Charged With Plagiarism in College Plagiarism- the act of passing off someone elses work as your own, no matter where you found it- is pretty common on college campuses. If one of your professors or an administrator realizes what youve done, you may be charged with plagiarism and put through some kind of campus judicial system. Figure out the Process Do you have a hearing? Are you supposed to write a letter explaining your side of the story? Does your professor simply want to see you? Or could you be placed on academic probation? Figure out what youre supposed to do and by when and then make sure it gets done. Make Sure You Understand the Charges You may have received a strongly worded letter accusing you of plagiarism, and yet youre not totally clear on what exactly it is youre being accused of. Talk with whoever sent you the letter or your professor about the specifics of your case. Either way, make sure you are crystal clear on what youre being charged with and what your options are. Understand the Consequences In your mind, you may have been up late, writing your paper, and absentmindedly cut and pasted something from your research that you forgot to cite. In your professors mind, however, you may have not taken the assignment very seriously, showed disrespect to him or her and your fellow classmates, and acted in a way that is unacceptable at the college level. What is not very serious to you may indeed be very serious to someone else. Make sure you understand what the consequence are, therefore, before you are unpleasantly surprised at how your sticky situation just got a lot worse. Respect and Participate in the Process You may not think the plagiarism charge is a big deal, so you toss the letter aside and forget about it. Unfortunately, however, plagiarism charges can be serious business. Respect and participate in the process so that you can explain your situation and reach a resolution. Figure Out What Youve Learned so It Doesnt Happen Again Plagiarism charges in college can be dealt with lightly (essay rewrite) or severely (expulsion). Consequently, learn from your mistake so that you can prevent getting yourself into a similar situation again. Having a misunderstanding about plagiarism, after all, can only happen once. The next time you receive a letter, folks are much less likely to be understanding since youve already been through the system. Learn what you can and move forward toward your ultimate goal: your diploma (earned by you and your own work, of course!).
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Assessing Popper's critique of Marx's historicism as well as limited defense of one or more of one or more of Marx's doctrines - Essay Example According to Popper, the main Marxist doctrines that contributed to the failure by the Australian social democrats to prevent the rise of fascism and the eventual collapse of parliamentary democracy is the Marxist historical doctrine of pseudo-scientific historical materialism. Popper was particularly traumatized by the failure of the democratic parties in Austria to prevent the takeover of Austrian politics by fascism between the 1920s and the 1930s. Popper argued that the communist economic system, which were manifested through fatal ambiguity, passivity and vanguardist politics, and social engineering contributed to the collapse of the parliamentary democracy. In addition, Popper attributed economic historicism and communism to the decline of the Austrian social democracy and the rise of fascism. For example, according to Popper, economic historicism based on Marxist doctrines encouraged the skeptism of the socialist on their ability to reverse historical trends and this significantly weakened their resolve to fight fascism (Hacohen 328). Finally Popper suggested that Marxism led to Austrian social democracy into a dead end by creating real problems that tended to displace another. The social democracy, which Marx promoted, failed to demonstrate feasible economic alternative that reflected market capitalism and totalitarian command economy according to Karl Popper (. The MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s ideologies that were inherent in the Austrian socialism committed the country into grave errors. For example, he suggested that Marxism not only failed to provide the Austrian and German socialists with guidelines of sharing political power with the non-socialists thereby resulting in disastrous consequences to their struggle against fascism (Hacohen 327). According to Popper, some of the defensible Marxist doctrines included Marxists critique of psychologism as well as Marx arguments of the autonomy of sociology and